Ufa, the capital of Bashkortostan is located on the bank of the Belaya (White) River. It is located on the Riverside and is one of Russia’s most important cities in relation to land area covered. It was the main cultural center of the Russian Empire and served as a port and major trade center in the region. During the time of its occupancy by the Mongolian empire, their biggest city was established here, Bashgirdt, today known as Novgorod Oblast.
The main aim of ufa was to increase grain production and to decrease the costs related with farming equipment. The aim was also to become a large-scale grain producer and to improve grain transportation. As such, the aim of ufa during early days was to restrict the access of non-residents and foreigners to the city. This policy did not help much with increasing grain production as the lack of sufficient storage facilities and transportation infrastructure for wagons and trains meant that the transport of grains from faraway places was difficult. However, the principle of restricted free agents was later adopted. The aim of ufa for the present time is to increase the volume and quality of grains produced and to minimize costs related to agricultural products.
One of the key features of ufa is that it does not allow the entry of foreigners directly or indirectly, except for officials of international, registered organizations. As such, all goods coming from outside come through ufa and are accordingly classified as ufa items. All shipments coming into the city have to go through a special ufa checkpoint, called “Kuprovsk” before reaching the administrative buildings of UFA. After passing through these checkpoints, goods can enter the city via the previously listed categories of unrestricted persons, but deliveries to other foreign countries are forbidden.
According to the latest annual statistics of the Belgrade ufa statistics office, in the first five years of implementation of ufa, there has been a considerable growth in the volume of grain export. Importers recorded an average of fourteen million kilograms of grain per year, which is more than twice as much as the volume of four years. The largest shipments came from Canada, Japan and the United States, with China overtaking the United States in the last year of implementation. Importers recorded a volume decline of twenty thousand tons in 2021, but this figure is subject to change due to seasonal increases and decreases in demand caused by various global economic indicators.
In addition to the volume of exports, there are many other economic factors responsible for the increased volume of grain imports and exports, including the opening of a new border between Serbia and Croatia, the opening of border trade with Pakistan and the increase in the transit of goods through Belgrade on the Croatian-Serbian border. The increasing number of trucks that crossed the border into the former Yugoslavia was one of the primary drivers of increased ufa. As the war began in September of Yugoslavia, the demand for Croatian currency also increased. In Belgrade, the market for both Croatian and Serb currency became extremely competitive, leading to a sharp fall in prices of both currencies.
At the beginning of October, the European Union made a decision to grant its member states the chance to opt in or out of the European Union’s restrictive free trade zone. Belgrade, with the help of Macedonian and Greek exporters, applied for the first ever ufa visa, and within hours, received its visa number twelve hundred and eight. On October twenty-first, the European Union decided to increase its annual quota of agricultural exports, in an attempt to balance the enlargement of its economy. The decision to extend the quota was accompanied by a twenty-four thousand euro increase in the annual allowance of free movement among EU member states, and a further twenty-two thousand euro increase for Portugal, which is already an EU member.